Surrogate Motherhood: International Perspectives
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Recent judgments see for example the cases of Mennesson and Labassee v. France have spurred debates on the role the Court has to play in this essentially controversial area or the weight to be given to the various competing interests. Claire Achmad, in her blog post of 28 July , welcomed what she deemed a child friendly approach of the Strasbourg Court. On 27 January the Court delivered yet a new judgment on surrogacy in the case of Paradiso and Campanelli v. Italy and other cases are currently awaiting judgment. All these cases have been lodged by the intended parents in their own name and on behalf of their children.
In the Mennesson and Labassee cases the Court did not find violations of Article 8 right to private and family life in respect of the parents but did find a violation in respect of the children. But first the facts:. The implantation took place in Russia, and there was no genetic link between the Russian mother and the baby. After the birth of the baby, the applicants were registered as the legal parents in Russia and they travelled with the baby to Italy with the intention of registering him as their son.
The Italian authorities refused the registration and initiated criminal proceedings against the applicants for fraud. The female applicant admitted that she was not the biological mother of the baby and it turned out, after DNA testing, that the legal father did not have any genetic link to the child either. If the contract is either prohibited or void, then there is no recourse if one party to the agreement has a change of heart: if a surrogate changes her mind and decides to keep the child, the intended mother has no claim to the child even if it is her genetic offspring, and the couple cannot get back any money they may have paid the surrogate; if the intended parents change their mind and do not want the child after all, the surrogate cannot get any money to make up for the expenses, or any promised payment, and she will be left with legal custody of the child.
Jurisdictions that permit surrogacy sometimes offer a way for the intended mother, especially if she is also the genetic mother, to be recognized as the legal mother without going through the process of abandonment and adoption. Often this is via a birth order  in which a court rules on the legal parentage of a child. These orders usually require the consent of all parties involved, sometimes even including the husband of a married gestational surrogate.
Most jurisdictions provide for only a post-birth order, often out of an unwillingness to force the surrogate mother to give up parental rights if she changes her mind after the birth. A few jurisdictions do provide for pre-birth orders, generally only in cases when the surrogate mother is not genetically related to the expected child. Some jurisdictions impose other requirements in order to issue birth orders: for example, that the intended parents be heterosexual and married to one another. Jurisdictions that provide for pre-birth orders are also more likely to provide for some kind of enforcement of surrogacy contracts.
The citizenship and legal status of the children resulting from surrogacy arrangements can be problematic. The Hague Conference Permanent Bureau identified the question of citizenship of these children as a "pressing problem" in the Permanent Bureau Study Hague Conference Permanent Bureau, a: In other words, the only way for the child to acquire U. This could result in a child being born without citizenship. Numerous ethical questions have been raised with regards to surrogacy.
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Those that view surrogacy as a social justice issue argue that it leads to the exploitation of women in developing countries whose wombs are commodified to meet the reproductive needs of the more affluent. Other human rights activists express concern over the conditions under which surrogate mothers are kept by surrogacy clinics which exercise much power and control over the process of surrogate pregnancy.
While some hold that any consensual process is not a human rights violation, other human rights activists argue that human rights are not just about survival but about human dignity and respect. Supporters of surrogacy have argued to mandate education of surrogate mothers regarding their rights and risks through the process in order to both rectify the ethical issues that arise and to enhance their autonomy. Those concerned with the rights of the child in the context of surrogacy reference issues related to identity and parenthood, abandonment and abuse, and child trafficking.
It is argued that in surrogacy, the rights of the child are often neglected as the baby becomes a mere commodity within an economic transaction of a good and a service. Child welfare concerns also relate to the abandonment and abuse of children that may occur in cases where the intending parents divorce, change their minds, or decide they want a different child.
[Full text] Current perspectives on the ethics of selling international surrogacy | MB
Those which deem surrogacy as a violation to the rights of the child often cite cases of trafficking and selling of surrogate children across borders in Cambodia and other countries, leading to statelessness and lack of citizenship amongst other issues. Different religions take different approaches to surrogacy, often related to their stances on assisted reproductive technology in general.
The Catholic Church is generally opposed to surrogacy which it views as immoral and incompatible with Biblical texts surrounding topics of birth , marriage , and life. In general, there is a lack of consensus within the Jewish community on the matter of surrogacy. Jewish scholars and rabbis have long debated this topic, expressing conflicting views on both sides of the debate.
Those supportive of surrogacy within the Jewish religion generally view it as a morally permissible way for Jewish women who cannot conceive to fulfill their religious obligations of procreation. Another point of contention surrounding surrogacy within the Jewish community is the issue of defining motherhood. There are generally three conflicting views on this topic: 1 the ovum donor is the mother, 2 the surrogate mother is the mother, and 3 the child has two mothers- both the ovum donor and the surrogate mother.
Jewish Law states that if a Jewish woman is the surrogate, then the child is Jewish.
Current perspectives on the ethics of selling international surrogacy support services
As India and other countries with large Hindu populations have become epicenters for fertility tourism, numerous questions have been raised regarding whether or not surrogacy conflicts with the Hindu religion. Anand Kumar , a renowned Indian reproductive biologist, argues that there is no conflict between Hinduism and assisted reproduction. Kan sh the wicked king of Mathura, had imprisoned his sister Devaki and her husband Vasudeva because oracles had informed him that her child would be his killer.
Every time she delivered a child, he smashed its head on the floor. He killed six children. When the seventh child was conceived, the gods intervened.
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Thus the child conceived in one womb was incubated in and delivered through another womb. Additionally, infertility Is often associated with Karma in the Hindu tradition and consequently treated as a pathology to be treated. Jain scholars have not debated the issue of surrogacy extensively. Other sources state that surrogacy is not objectionable in the Jain view as it is seen as a physical operation akin to any other medical treatment used to treat a bodily deficiency. Buddhist thought is also inconclusive on the matter of surrogacy.
The prominent belief is that Buddhism totally accepts surrogacy since there are no Buddhist teachings suggesting that infertility treatments or surrogacy are immoral. However, numerous Buddhist thinkers have expressed concerns with certain aspects of surrogacy, hence challenging the contention that surrogacy is always compatible with Buddhist tradition. Others reference the Buddha directly who purportedly taught that trade in sentient beings, including human beings, is not a righteous practice as it almost always involves exploitation that causes suffering.
The Islamic community has largely outlawed the practice of surrogacy, however there remains a small population of Muslims which contend that the practice of surrogacy does not conflict with Islamic law.
The main concerns that Muslims raise with regard to surrogacy relate to issues of adultery and parental lineage. In contrast, a minority of Muslim proponents of surrogacy argue that Islamic law recognizes the preservation of the human species as one of its primary objectives maqasid , and allowing married couples to pursue conceiving children is part of this primary objective.
Fertility tourism for surrogacy is driven by legal restrictions in the home country or the incentive of lower prices abroad. Russia, the US, and, most recently, Canada have been added to the list of major international surrogacy destinations. While previously hot spots, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Mexico have all recently implemented bans on commercial surrogacy for non-residents.
Although there are no official figures available, a United Nations report counted around 3, fertility clinics in India. Indian surrogates became increasingly popular amongst intended parents in industrialized nations because of the relatively low costs and easy access offered by Indian surrogacy agencies. In , surrogacy by foreign homosexual couples and single parents was banned.
Liberal legislation makes Russia attractive for those looking for assisted reproductive techniques not available in their countries. Genetic relation to the child in case of donation is not a factor. People travel to the US for surrogacy procedures for the high quality of medical technology and care, as well as the high level of legal protections afforded through some US state courts to surrogacy contracts as compared to many other countries.
The United States is occasionally sought as a location for surrogate mothers by couples seeking a green card in the US, since the resulting child can get birthright citizenship in the United States and can thereby apply for green cards for the parents when the child turns 21 years of age.
Canada has recently become a more popular international surrogacy destination, with almost half of the babies born to Canadian surrogates in the province of British Columbia in and having been for foreign parents. Numerous reasons have been proposed to explain Canada's rising popularity as an international surrogacy destination. For one, Canada is one of the few destinations in the world that still allows surrogacy for foreign commissioning parents. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a type of pregnancy. For other uses of the word "surrogacy", see Surrogate.
Arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. Further information: Surrogacy laws by country. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Both gainful and altruistic forms are legal.mail.ruk-com.in.th/gatos-callejeros-una-mirada-en-los.php
Calling for a Radical Change of Perspective on Surrogate Motherhood
No legal regulation. Only altruistic is legal. Allowed between relatives up to second degree of consanguinity. See also: Religious response to assisted reproductive technology. Main article: Fertility tourism. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. August Further information: Surrogacy in India. Medicine portal Sexuality portal. Surrogacy raises questions for medical and welfare practitioners and dilemmas for policy makers as well as ethical issues of concern to society as a whole. The international perspective adopted by this book offers an opportunity for questions of law, policy and practice to be shared and debated across countries.
The book links contemporary views from research and practice with broader social issues and bio-ethical debates. The book will be of interest to an international audience of academics and their students in law, social policy, reproductive medicine, psychology and sociology , practitioners including doctors, counsellors, midwives and welfare professionals as well as those involved in policy-making and implementation.