Switch-Mode Power Supply Simulation: Designing with SPICE 3 (McGraw-Hill Electronic Engineering)
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The resistive, inductive and capacitive terms can resonate amplifying the noise signals created by the power supply and the load as they travel across the PDN creating EMI. The harmonics of the switching frequency and the switch ringing discussed earlier excite these PDN resonances Reference 4. As stated previously this noise can degrade and interfere with on-board wireless modems, as well as resulting radiated and conducted emissions. A short video helps explain the basic principles of PDN design Reference 5.
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The MHz is attributed to the ringing of the switches as seen in Figure 7. The input power plane section of the DC-DC converter measured in Figure 6 is shown in Figure 9 with schematic representations of the component, PC board and external connections. A very simple simulation example can be used to illustrate these impedance resonance effects.
Designers frequently place the FET switches on one side of the board with power entry on the opposite side of the PC board.
The small PC board plane used in this example has power entry through a pair of pins and no interconnect inductance is added to connect power to the PC board. Two parallel vias connect power and ground from the top side of the PC board to the bottom side as seen in Figure The simple model is used to simulate the harmonic current in the input connector, which is directly related to conducted and radiated emissions. Two simulations are performed; one with low ESR ceramic capacitors and the other with a lower Q controlled ESR ceramic replacing the 0.
Both simulations are shown together in Figure The simulated impedance, measured at the smaller capacitor in Figure 13 shows the corresponding plane resonance with a clear 10 MHz peak using the high Q ceramic capacitor blue and the peak is eliminated using the controller ESR ceramic capacitor red. Damping resistance must be included to eliminate or minimize the existence or Q of resonances.
This will consist of:. The design of the circuit board and capacitor decoupling always involves trade-offs, but the impacts on resonances need to be weighed carefully. A multi-frequency harmonic comb generator can be extremely helpful for quickly identifying PDN resonances Reference 3. Poor designs can result in:.
He is the author of numerous articles relating to power integrity and distributed systems. He is widely published and speaks internationally. This article discusses the three most common causes of EMI and power integrity issues while providing tips for how to avoid or minimizes them in your design, Ringing on switched waveforms causes broad resonant peaks in the emission spectrum. DC-DC converters generate noise at the switching frequency, and because of high speed switching devices, can generate broadband switching harmonics well into the GHz.
Figure 1. Diagram showing the measuring point at the switch device junction on the left side of L1 to ground return. Figure 2. Measuring the rise time and ringing on a DC-DC converter. Notice to strong ringing at MHz.
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Figure 3. Resulting resonances from the MHz ring frequency marker 1 and second harmonic at MHz marker 2. Slower edges will degrade operating efficiency but reduce high frequency energy Careful PCB design and capacitor selection will minimize the characteristic impedance and Q Keep traces short and wide and dielectrics thin.
Keep all the switching circuitry on one side of the board, prefer-ably with a thin dielectric to the respective ground return plane. Use of a snubber circuit, damping of resonances using con-trolled ESR capacitors, or redesign of the inductor for lower leakage inductance. For additional detail on measuring ringing refer to Reference 1. Comments by HV: So go for it: write your own circuit simulator! Or better use ngspice, but learn a lot about it with this book. Compact models of semiconductor devices are the bridge between integrated circuit design and manufacturing in the IC industry.
This book presents BSIM4 systematically. It provides analyses and insights into the advanced MOS device theory and process implementation, compact modeling methodology and engineering practice, characterization and parameter extraction, as well as SPICE implementation for BSIM4. This book is dedicated to the BSIM users and those that make their profession in these areas. This in fact is not a book, but a collection of 7 papers on the history of Spice by R.
Rohrer, L. Nagel, T.
Quarles original Spice authors and others, plus the original paper from and a review paper by D. Pederson from Extensively revised and updated, the third edition of this highly acclaimed text provides a thorough treatment of the MOS transistor--the key element of modern microelectronic chips.
Aimed at novices as well as professional circuit designers, the book is a unique combination of a basic guide to general analog circuit simulation and a SPICE OPUS software manual. Circuit Simulation with SPICE OPUS is intended for a wide audience of undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in electrical and systems engineering, circuit design, and simulation development.
Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 2 August IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved Page 9 mydocs.
A Brief History
Search the page for "doubler" for more info. Retrieved March Archived from the original on Archived from the original PDF on APEC , pp. Categories : Power supplies Power electronics Electric power conversion Voltage regulation. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from December Articles with unsourced statements from November Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
Size and weight of adequate RF shielding may be significant. A transformer's power handling capacity of given size and weight increases with frequency provided that hysteresis losses can be kept down. Therefore, higher operating frequency means either a higher capacity or smaller transformer. With transformer used, any voltages available; if transformerless, limited to what can be achieved with a voltage doubler. If unregulated, voltage varies significantly with load.livingcalendars.com.sg/components/map3.php
Characterizing and Selecting the VRM | | Signal Integrity Journal
Any voltages available, limited only by transistor breakdown voltages in many circuits. Voltage varies little with load. Efficiency , heat, and power dissipation. Output is regulated using duty cycle control; the transistors are switched fully on or fully off, so very little resistive losses between input and the load. The only heat generated is in the non-ideal aspects of the components and quiescent current in the control circuitry. Unregulated may be simply a diode and capacitor; regulated has a voltage-regulating circuit and a noise-filtering capacitor; usually a simpler circuit and simpler feedback loop stability criteria than switched-mode circuits.
Consists of a controller IC, one or several power transistors and diodes as well as a power transformer, inductors, and filter capacitors. For this SMPSs have to use duty cycle control. One of the outputs has to be chosen to feed the voltage regulation feedback loop usually 3.
The other outputs usually track the regulated one pretty well. Both need a careful selection of their transformers. Due to the high operating frequencies in SMPSs, the stray inductance and capacitance of the printed circuit board traces become important. Radio frequency interference. Mild high-frequency interference may be generated by AC rectifier diodes under heavy current loading, while most other supply types produce no high-frequency interference.
Some mains hum induction into unshielded cables, problematical for low-signal audio. Long wires between the components may reduce the high frequency filter efficiency provided by the capacitors at the inlet and outlet. Stable switching frequency may be important. Electronic noise at the output terminals. It can cause audible mains hum in audio equipment, brightness ripples or banded distortions in analog security cameras.
Noisier due to the switching frequency of the SMPS. An unfiltered output may cause glitches in digital circuits or noise in audio circuits. This can be suppressed with capacitors and other filtering circuitry in the output stage.
With a switched mode PSU the switching frequency can be chosen to keep the noise out of the circuits working frequency band e. Non power-factor-corrected SMPSs also cause harmonic distortion. Acoustic noise. Faint, usually inaudible mains hum, usually due to vibration of windings in the transformer or magnetostriction. The operating frequency of an unloaded SMPS is sometimes in the audible human range, and may sound subjectively quite loud for people whose hearing is very sensitive to the relevant frequency range.
Low for a regulated supply because current is drawn from the mains at the peaks of the voltage sinusoid , unless a choke-input or resistor-input circuit follows the rectifier now rare. The internal resistance of low-power transformers in linear power supplies usually limits the peak current each cycle and thus gives a better power factor than many switched-mode power supplies that directly rectify the mains with little series resistance. Large current when mains-powered linear power supply equipment is switched on until magnetic flux of transformer stabilises and capacitors charge completely, unless a slow-start circuit is used.
Extremely large peak "in-rush" surge current limited only by the impedance of the input supply and any series resistance to the filter capacitors. Empty filter capacitors initially draw large amounts of current as they charge up, with larger capacitors drawing larger amounts of peak current. Being many times above the normal operating current, this greatly stresses components subject to the surge, complicates fuse selection to avoid nuisance blowing and may cause problems with equipment employing overcurrent protection such as uninterruptible power supplies.
Mitigated by use of a suitable soft-start circuit or series resistor. Risk of electric shock. Supplies with transformers isolate the incoming power supply from the powered device and so allow metalwork of the enclosure to be grounded safely. Transformerless mains-operated supply dangerous. In both linear and switch-mode the mains, and possibly the output voltages, are hazardous and must be well-isolated. Two capacitors are connected in series with the Live and Neutral rails with the Earth connection in between the two capacitors. This forms a capacitive divider that energizes the common rail at half mains voltage.
Its high impedance current source can provide a tingling or a 'bite' to the operator or can be exploited to light an Earth Fault LED. However, this current may cause nuisance tripping on the most sensitive residual-current devices. Very low, unless a short occurs between the primary and secondary windings or the regulator fails by shorting internally.
Can fail so as to make output voltage very high [ quantify ]. Stress on capacitors may cause them to explode. Can in some cases destroy input stages in amplifiers if floating voltage exceeds transistor base-emitter breakdown voltage, causing the transistor's gain to drop and noise levels to increase. The floating voltage is caused by capacitors bridging the primary and secondary sides of the power supply.